APAH: Early Middle Ages Early Middle Ages: ~500 ? APAH: Early Middle Ages . Early Middle Ages:

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APAH: Early Middle Ages Early Middle Ages: ~500 1000 When does Rome end? Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 476 Henri Pirenne, Muhammad and Charlemagne 8th century Late Middle Ages: 1000 1300 (1450) Romanesque / Gothic Changing historical understanding Greater social / political complexity Tribal: Ostrogoths, Visagoths, Gaul, Angles, Saxons, etc. Interaction with Roman Empire Rhine membrane Roman influence Latifundia Roman Estates :: Fiefs Manors Aristocracy abandoned Rome before the fall Feudalism (later M.A.) System of obligations Chivalry code of behavior Christianity in the West Unifying role Church administration / authority in Roman cities Spread throughout Roman Empire (even before recognition) Religious courts / bureaucracy Conversion of barbarian groups even before the fall Church survives fall and provides structure Social / cultural tie for people Only source of literacy / education Latin language in illiterate societies Goals of Franks and Roman Church aligned Expansion & mutual support Development of formal theology Gregory the Great Augustine of Hippo Written dogma Settles disputes of interpretation (tries to anyway) Standardizes beliefs and practices Monasticism Religious spiritual life Communal living Asceticism (ascetic life) withdrawal from the world Monasteries (monks) Origins at St. Catherines Order of St. Benedict (Rule of St. Benedict) Franks (Merovingian) Collapse of Roman authority creates chaos in West Clovis United local chiefs single kingdom (481) Converts to Christianity (Roman) Do-nothing Kings Frankish fibula (6th century) Pagan art form merged with Christian iconography Syncretism appropriation Visigoth tomb in Spain Symbol of wealth Northern Art Vikings Normans Sutton Hoo burial site Purse lid (6th century) Cloisonn Complex design, interwoven figures Two biting snakes / eagle heads Anticipates illuminated manuscript form Interlaced humans/animals uniquely European Hiberno-Saxon Art (Insular Art) Ireland & Britain Conversion of Ireland 5th century St. Patrick : Ireland (Celts) Isolation Skellig Michael (c. 6th -8th century) Asceticism Lindisfarne monastery, England (c. 5th century) Relics of St. Cuthbert Abandoned after Viking invasions in 875 Lindisfarne Gospels (codex) (c. 700) Pigment on vellum Bishop Eadfrith Illumination Scriptorium Faithful copying of sacred texts Gospels & Psalms Religious act Little deviation over time Latin with English interlinear translation (1st example) Cross Carpet pages Gospel writer portraits Incipit pages Interlaced animal knot pattern Joy in complexity/mystery of God Horror vacui fear of open spaces, decoration of all space Book of Kells (c. 800) Celtic Gospel book Franks (Carolingian) Pepin of Herstal Unites Frankish lands Charles Martel Mayor of the Palace Defeats Muslims at Battle of Tour (732) Renews alliance with the Church Charlemagne (r. 768-814) First HRE (800-814) Crowned by the Pope on Christmas (800) Unification of most powerful forces in Europe Expands Frankish rule Encouraged education Spread of Christianity Administration effective government Collected learning Alcuin of York Developed script handwriting Preserved learning 4-5x number of Carolingian books vs. Roman texts Palatine Chapel Aachen, Germany Palace church Modeled on San Vitale Odo of Metz First known architect in N. Europe Treaty of Verdun Divides empire: Charles the Bald, Lothair, Louis the German Invasions: Vikings, Magyars, Muslims Weakened Europe End of Carolingians Ottonians Saxon line Otto I HRE by Pope (936) End of Viking invasions Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim Tutor of Otto III Man of learning, traveled to Rome Hildesheim Cathedral Basilica style double transept Doors to Hildesheim Bernward Doors (1015) 16 tall / 8 panels per door Cast as whole First monumental casting since antiquity Narrative reliefs anticipates large scale sculpture of Romanesque Left Genesis Creation of Eve at top Right Life of Christ Annunciation at bottom Post-Resurrection at bottom Paralleled stories Fall of Adam & Eve vs. redemption of Crucifixion Dynamic Curse of mortality God forceful, psychic focus

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